lunes, 20 de junio de 2011

Things you can do in Summer...

Here is a list of 50 things to do the next time you are bored!

1. Go on a picnic to Nuevo Baztán... you can get there by bike!
2. Go on a walk around Campo Real and take pictures of trees, flowers, dogs, etc.
3. Enjoy an afternoon with someone you love: a friend, your parents...
4. Help someone who needs you!
5. Volunteer at the local animal or homeless shelter.
6. Clean your room!
7. Bake some food you are good at and surprise your friends and family.
8. Play some childhood games, enjoy the memories it brings back.
9. Take your dog (or your neighbour´s)for a walk.
10. E-mail a friend you haven't spoken to in awhile.
11. Do 25 jumping jacks!
12. Look through old family scrapbooks, photo books, and yearbooks.
13. Ask and listen about your grandparents and parents about their lives, learn!!.
14. Go to the movies with your friends.
15. Go window-shopping with your mum/dad/ grandma...
16. Write a poem.
17. Make fresh, homemade fruit juice.
18. Give your dog (or yourself) a relaxing bath.
19. Make dinner for your family.
20. Baby-sit for a neighbour.
21. Have a sleepover party and watch scary movies.
22. Plan a vacation you want to take next summer.
23. Plant flowers anywhere!
24. Sign up for a lesson you liked to learn about.
25. Have a long night walk under the stars!!!.
26. Make a mixed CD of your favorite songs and title it "The soundtrack of my life".
27. Order a pizza, try new ingredients.
28. Splash around in a plastic kiddy pool.
29. Buy some crayons and a coloring book, express yourself.
30. Read a book based on a movie you have seen.
31. Make a scrapbook of your baby pictures, share it!
32. Get a part-time job... enjoy your own money!!
33. Start a diary and write in it everyday.
34. Spend a day at the library.
35. Draw a self-portrait.
36. Make a collage out of old magazines.
37. Run around your town, show you are sportive.
38. Go to a museum.
39. Go out for lunch with one of your parents... or teachers!.
40. Jump in the pool with your clothes on.
41. Eat last night's leftovers for breakfast.
42. Learn to sew or knit.
43. Invite friends over and have a tea party, British? Cool in Valdilecha!!.
44. Swing on the swings at the park.
45. Decorate a white t-shirt with your own design!
46. Smile to everyone today.
47. Learn how to define and spell 5 new words from the dictionary.
48. Make popsicles in your freezer. Invite your friends.
49. Put on the radio and dance.
50. Go camping anywhere you like! Clean up!Don't forget to leave everything as you found it!

viernes, 3 de junio de 2011

Being green!


Reduce: This means you reduce the amount of materials you use. For example, if you use both sides of a paper, you are reducing the number of pages you need.

Reuse: This means you use the material over again for the same purpose. For example, we use dishes everyday and wash them instead of throwing away plastic ones.

Recuperate: This means you use the same material for something else. For example, a coffee cup with no handle might be reused as a container for crayons or pencils.

Recycle: This means to use the materials over again to make a new product. For example, old newspapers are recycled when they are made into new paper or other products…

How to Calculate Your Ecological Footprint: check here

Now, look at the items in this list – you may add some similar items of your own- and decide if they can be recycled, reused, recuperated or reduced and explain how. Some items may appear in more than one category.

Paper, soda can, rubber tire, cereal box, plastic bags, cinema tickets, water glass jar, lolly sticks, milk carton, styrofoam containers…

miércoles, 25 de mayo de 2011

Birds are dinosaurs!!!

The Strongest Evidence of Dinosaur Heritage:

Many anatomical reasons (some in dispute) have been offered for linking birds to dinosaurs; but the strongest evidence is circumstantial:

birds fly north to nest!

Birds fly north because of dinosaur heritage. North flight is the remnant of an ancient scheme. Birds evolved from predatory theropod dinosaurs that swam in attendance with the herds of herbivores on their periodic treks and that reared their own young at the herd periphery. The dinosaur had begun 230 million years ago to be genetically wired for a seasonal trip to the north – about 90 million years before a theropod line evolved into the first bird. Marine migrations of ancient dinosaurs are no more; but the genetodynamic compulsion to fly north to nest in season lingers in numerous bird genera. The herd was father to the flock.

Today, birds fly north to lay their eggs and to fledge their young in relative safety. Flocks (in analogy to herds) fly back and forth in season over the Mediterranean, the remnant of the western Tethys.

Taken from:

Learn more at:

miércoles, 18 de mayo de 2011

Amazing Australia...

Emus have been walking the plains of Australia for about 80 million years. The Emu was around when the dinosaurs still walked the plains. They knew Australia when it was covered in rainforest.

The Emu's ability to survive such changes says much about its adaptability. According to folklore, Emus have a mysterious mechanism that tells them where the rain is, and will travel for hundreds of kilometers to find it.

They are nomadic and feed on grains, flowers, fruit, soft shoots, insects, mice, grubs, and even other animal dung. They are powerful swimmers and and capable of crossing any river. Although they must drink every day, they are very good conservers of water. Their feathers deflect most of the sun's heat which allows them to forage right through the day when nearly all other animals must take shelter.

They also have a great sense of curiosity and will investigate anything unusual. When hunting, some Aborigines used to exploit this curiosity.

Learn more about emus at:

Learn about other Australian animals at:

Learn more about Australia at:

Share your findings!!!!

miércoles, 6 de abril de 2011

Water for life!!!

No living being on planet Earth can survive without it.

It is needed for human health and well-being as well as for the preservation of the environment.However, four of every ten people in the world do not have access to a toilet; and nearly two in ten have no source of safe drinking water.

Every year millions of people, most of them children, die from diseases associated with inadequate water supply, sanitation, and hygiene.

According to the World Health Organization, each and every day some 3,900 children die because of dirty water or poor hygiene; diseases transmitted through water or human excrement are the second-leading cause of death among children worldwide, after respiratory diseases.

Water scarcity, poor water quality, and inadequate sanitation negatively impact food security, livelihood choices, and educational opportunities for poor families across the world. Water-related natural disasters such as floods, tropical storms and tsunamis exact a heavy toll in human life and suffering. And all too regularly, drought afflicts some of the world’s poorest countries, exacerbating hunger and malnutrition.

Beyond meeting basic human needs, water supply and sanitation services, as well as water as a resource, are critical to sustainable development. It is a major source of energy in some parts of the world, while in others its potential as an energy source remains largely untapped.Water is also necessary for agriculture and for many industrial processes. And in more than a few countries, it makes up an integral part of transport systems.

With improved scientific understanding, the international community has also come to appreciate more fully the valuable services provided by water-related ecosystems, from flood control to storm protection and water purification.

Water challenges will increase significantly in the coming years. Continuing population growth and rising incomes will lead to greater water consumption, as well as more waste. The urban population in developing countries will grow dramatically, generating demand well beyond the capacity of already inadequate water supply and sanitation infrastructure and services. According to the UN World Water Development Report, by 2050, at least one in four people is likely to live in a country affected by chronic or recurring shortages of freshwater.

It seems there are more than few reasons to put water and sanitation at the top of the world’s agenda...

What do you think???

miércoles, 9 de marzo de 2011

Did you know?

Why is blue for boys and pink for girls?

In ancient times, it was believed that certain colors could fight evil spirits that were related to nurseries. Which ones? _____________________________________________________

Blue was associated with the heavenly spirits and so boys wore that colour as then boys were considered the most valuable resource to parents. Why?

Although baby girls did not have a color associated with them, they were mostly clothed in black. It was only in the Middle Ages when pink became associated with baby girls.Why? ____________________________________________________

Go to the webpage:

Which is your favourite article? __________________________________________________

Watch the video: Did you know?

Which figure shocked you most? __________________________________________________

Make your comments!

martes, 22 de febrero de 2011

Pele: The Tale Of The Volcano Goddess

Native Hawaiians thought that volcanic eruptions were caused by Pele, the beautiful Goddess of Volcanoes. Pele had frequent moments of anger, which brought her eruptions. She was honored but also feared (she could cause earthquakes by stamping her feet or volcanic eruptions by digging with her Pa'oa, her magic stick).

Pele had an argument with her older sister, Namakaokahai. The fight ended up forming the Hawaiian Islands.

Pele used her magic stick on Kauai, but she was attacked by her older sister. Pele recovered and fled to Oahu, where she dug several "fire pits," including the crater we now called Diamond Head, in Honolulu.

After that, Pele left her mark on the island of Molokai before travelling to Maui and creating the Haleakala Volcano. Namakaokahai, Pele's older sister, realized she was still alive and she went to Maui to find her. After a terrific fight, Namakaokahai believed that she had killed her younger sister. But Pele was still alive and she was busy working at the Mauna Loa Volcano, on the big island of Hawaii.

Finally, Namakaokahai gave up the struggle. Pele dug her final eternal fire pit, Halemaumau Crater, at the summit of Kilauea Volcano.

She is said to live there to this day...

Get to know more about volcanoes and how to prevent disasters at:

Extra activities on volcanoes: worksheets

Answer these questions:

1. What was the most destructive volcanic eruption we know? _____________________________________________

How many lives did it take?__________________________

2. Approximate how many volcanoes are active in the world at this time? ____________________________

Name five of those you remember (or look for them)

3. What are some positive things we may get from volcanoes?

Still want more?: Click this Reading / Comprehension

domingo, 13 de febrero de 2011


Gorillas communicate in several ways. They often mix sounds with actions.
When gorillas beat their chest with their hands, it is a warning signal to others to show they are "in charge".

Researchers have identified 25 different sounds made by gorillas and their meaning but there are many more that we don’t understand yet. They make chirps, grunts, roars, growls, and even hooting like an owl. They can be funny too, laughing and sticking their tongue out.

Gorillas use their communication to find food, to offer help, to express distress, for developing social relationships...

Certain members can develop forms of slang as we do in our social groups. This means that their communications are often learned and not just product of the use of the instinct.

Gorillas can also been taught how to communicate by humans. One successful story is that of KoKo: She was taught how to use sign language.

They hear and use noises that humans can’t even hear and that is how they are usually alerted to dangers. They also rely on their sense of smell.

Young gorillas have communications which are similar to those of human babies including whining and crying. Their mothers can find out what they need easily.

There are 9 steps to the gorilla communication ritual: First they will offer hooting sounds that get faster, feed in a methodical way, jump up and down, throw food, beat their chest with both hands, kick with their legs, run sideways, tear at vegetation out there, and end with their palms hitting the ground and more hooting sounds.

Researchers continue decoding their language, it isn’t an easy task. It is like trying to take a completely foreign language and learning it on your own. As many of the different sounds seem to have several meanings, the task is even more difficult...

martes, 8 de febrero de 2011

Dolphins and communication

Dolphins are considered to be the most intelligent mammals and researchers believe much of the dolphin's brain is used for communication or "echolocation".

While we still don't know if dolphins have a formal language, they do communicate with a "personal" whistle to identify themselves.

Unlike humans, dolphins do not have vocal cords, but they do use a complicated system of whistles, squeaks, moans, trills and clicks produced by their blow hole muscle.

Using echolocation, or sonar, dolphins send out frequencies by clicking. The returning sound waves are picked up by the dolphin's forehead and lower jaw and interpreted as to distance, size and shape of object.

This sound system is particularly useful at night as it allows the dolphin to navigate even if visibility is poor.

Dolphins have produced sound frequencies from 0.25 to 200 kHz, using the higher frequencies for echolocation and the lower frequencies for communication and orientation.

Do you want to learn more? Click on one of these:

The Dolphin Communication Project

What are dolphins?

Dolphin facts

Dolphin World!

miércoles, 2 de febrero de 2011

Non-verbal communication

Animals may not be able to speak but they have other ways of communicating... Whale song, wolf howls, frog croaks, bird chips -- even the waggle dance of the honeybee or the vigorous waving of a dog's tail -- are among the panoply of ways animals transmit information to each other and to other members of the animal kingdom.

They use nonverbal forms of communication, such as calls; non-vocal auditory outbursts, like the slap of a dolphin's tail on the water; bioluminescence; scent marking; chemical or tactile cues; visual signals and postural gestures.

Fireflies and peacocks are classic examples of brilliant bioluminescence and impressive visual displays, respectively. Ants use chemical cues (in a process called chemoreception) to help guide their foraging adventures, as well as for other activities like telling friend from foe or connecting with new mates.

When it comes to acoustic communication, not every member of a species is just alike. Animals in different regions have often been overhead sounding off in different dialects. For example, one study found that blue whales produce different patterns of pulses, tones and pitches depending on where they're from. Some bird species are the same way. And what about those birds that live on the border between territories of differing songsters? They often become bilingual, so to speak, and able to communicate in the singing parlance favored by each of their groups of neighbours!

Communication between species can play important roles as well. One study suggested that the reason Madagascan spiny-tailed iguanas have well-developed ears -- despite the fact that they don't communicate vocally -- is so they can hear the warning calls of the Madagascan paradise flycatcher. The two species have nothing in common except for the fact that they share a general habitat and raptors like to snack on them. So when an iguana hears a bird raise the alarm among other birds, it likely knows to be on alert for incoming predators, too!

To learn more on animal behaviour click here

To learn more on human non-verbal communication click here

miércoles, 19 de enero de 2011

WH Question Words

what?: asking for information about something. Example: What is your name?

asking for repetition or confirmation. Example: What? I can't hear you. You did what?

what...for?: asking for a reason, asking why. Example: What did you do that for?

when?: asking about time. Example: When did he leave?

where?: asking in or at what place or position. Example: Where do they live?

which?: asking about choice. Example: Which colour do you want?

who?: asking what or which person or people (subject). Example: Who opened the door?

whose?: asking about ownership. Example: Whose are these keys?Whose turn is it?

why?: asking for reason, asking what...for. Example: Why do you say that?

why don't?: making a suggestion. Example: Why don't I help you?

how?: asking about manner. Example: How does this work?
asking about condition or quality. Example: How was your exam?

how + adj/adv?: asking about extent or degree see examples below:

how far? distance. Example: How far is Pattaya from Bangkok?

how long?: length (time or space). Example: How long will it take?

how many?: quantity (countable). Example: How many cars are there?

how much?: quantity (uncountable). Example: How much money do you have?

how old?: age. Example: How old are you?

how come?: (informal) asking for reason, asking why. Example: How come I can't see her?

Learn more on Questions and answers at:

miércoles, 12 de enero de 2011

Modal verbs

Modal auxiliaries (we are learning: CAN, COULD, MUST, SHOULD) have several special characteristics.

1. They are never used alone. A main verb is either present or implied.

I can fly an aeroplane.
He should behave.
Could you go? Yes, I will (go).

2. Modal auxiliaries have no –s in the third person singular.

I can swim.
She can swim. (NOT She cans …)
I must pass.
He must pass.
They must pass.

3. Modal auxiliaries do not have infinitives (to may, to shall etc.) or participles (maying, shalling, shalled etc.).
You cannot say to shall, to must or to may.

4. They never mix or use an auxiliar or past form.
You can't say: Will Ican? / Do you must? / You musted ...

5. They have "friends" to help them:

CAN/COULD: BE ABLE TOas in `I will be able to go with you´.
MUST/SHOULD: HAVE TO as in `He had to go because his mother told him to´

Still having doubts?

Check the theory in

Practice with some exercises in

lunes, 10 de enero de 2011

Inventions and discoveries

The dawn of discovery

A long slow sequence of invention and discovery has made possible the familiar details of our everyday lives. Mankind's programme of improvements has been erratic and unpredictable. But good ideas are rarely forgotten. They are borrowed and copied and spread more widely, in an accelerating process which makes the luxuries of one age the necessities of the next.

The story is a disjointed one, since inventions and discoveries occur in a random fashion. They are described here in an approximately chronological sequence.

Two million years of stone technology represent the first long era of discovery at the start of human history. The use of fire, more than 500,000 years ago, is also a discovery. And some Stone Age artefacts (such as winged arrow-heads to stick in the flesh of the prey, or hooks carved in bone) have almost the quality of inventions. But these are developments of such an extended nature that they seem different in kind from the discoveries and inventions of more recent history.

Perhaps the first two ideas worthy of the name of 'invention', even though invented many times in many different places, are the eye of a needle and the string of a bow.

Needle and thread: from 15,000 years ago

In districts where warm clothing is necessary, Stone Age people stitch skins together with threads of tendon or leather thongs. For each stitch they bore a hole and then hook the thread through it.

The development of a bone or ivory needle, with an eye, speeds up the process immeasurably. The hole is now created by the same implement which then pulls the thread through, in an almost continuous movement. Needles of this kind have been found in caves in Europe from the late palaeolithic period, about 15,000 years ago. Several are so thin as to imply the use of materials such as horsehair for the thread.

The bow and arrow: from 15,000 years ago

The sudden release of stored energy, when a forcibly bent strip of wood is allowed to snap back into its natural shape, is more rapid and therefore more powerful than any impulse of which human muscles are capable - yet human muscles, at a slower rate, have the strength to bend the strip of wood.

The principle of the bow is discovered about 15,000 years ago. Bows and arrows feature from that time, no doubt both in hunting and warfare, in the regions of north Africa and southern Europe. The wood is usually ewe or elm. Stone Age technology is capable of producing sharp flint points for the arrows, often with barbs to secure them in the victim's flesh.

Making fire: more than 10,000 years ago

At some unknown time, before the beginning of settled life in the Neolithic Revolution, humans learn how to make fire. No doubt the discovery happens at many different times in many different places over a very long period. The knowledge of how to create a spark, and to nurture it until it develops into a flame, is an intrinsic skill of human society.

Almost without exception Stone Age tribes, surviving into modern times, have evolved in isolation their own methods of making fire. It is likely that the same was true when all humanity lived in the Stone Age.

The most common way of making fire is by friction, using a fire drill. This consists of a stick of hard wood, pointed at one end, and a slab of softer wood with a hole in it. If the point is placed in the cavity and rapidly twirled (by rubbing between the palms, or by means of a bow string looped round and pulled back and forth), the softer wood begins to smoulder. Shreds of dry tinder, placed in the smouldering cavity, can be carefully blown into a flame.

Another more sophisticated technique involves flint and pyrite. Evidence of both methods is found in neolithic tombs.

Read more at: